blackout, and victims (often capable swimmers swimming under the surface in shallow water) become unconscious and drown quietly without alerting anyone to the fact that there. These disparities might be associated with lack of basic swimming skills in some minority populations. External examination and autopsy findings are often non-specific, and the available laboratory tests are often inconclusive or controversial. 7 In those whose heart is not beating and who have been underwater for less than an hour CPR is recommended. If the person is unconscious they may be pulled in a similar fashion held at the chin and cheeks, ensuring that the mouth and nose are well above the water. 12 The instinctive drowning response covers many signs or behaviors associated with drowning or near-drowning: Head low in the water, mouth at water level Head tilted back with mouth open Eyes glassy and empty, unable to focus Eyes open, with. The lungs may be over inflated and waterlogged, filling the thoracic cavity, and the surface may have a marbled appearance, with darker areas associated with collapsed alveoli interspersed with paler aerated areas. 7 In 2015, there were an estimated.5 million cases of unintentional drowning. 8 That year it resulted in 324,000 deaths making it the third leading cause of death from unintentional injuries after falls and motor vehicle collisions. Citation needed In New Zealand's early colonial history, so many settlers died while trying to cross rivers that drowning was known as "The New Zealand death". Archived from the original on Retrieved Gulli, Benjamin; Ciatolla, Joseph.; Barnes, Leaugeay (2011). A b c d GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators. Only rescue ventilation is practicable in the water, chest compressions require a suitable platform, so in-water assessment of circulation is pointless. This reflex protects the body by putting it into energy saving mode to maximize the time it can stay under water. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 February 2017. Archived from the original on "Drowning and Life Saving". There is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of oxygen by the first aid provider. Rescue involves bringing the person's mouth and nose above the water surface. Archived from the original on zpilman, D; Bierens JL; Handley A; Orlowski JP (2012). The primary urge to breathe is triggered by rising carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the bloodstream. "Neurodevelopmental outcome for extended cold water drowning: A longitudinal case study". The signs of drowning are degraded by decomposition. Archived from the original on External links edit. Archived from the original on Retrieved 25 August 1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown ( link ) van Beek, EF (2005). 33 34 The actual cause of death in cold or very cold water is usually lethal bodily reactions to increased heat loss and to freezing water, rather than any loss of core body temperature. 24 This has been called " dry drowning as no water enters the lungs. A b Cantwell, G Patricia.